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خیام,زندگینامه خیام,زندگی نامه خیام نیشابوری
زندگینامه خیام نیشابوری

نام اصلی: غیاث‌الدین ابوالفتح عمر بن ابراهیم خیام نیشابوری

زمینه فعالیت: ریاضیات، اخترشناسی، شعر

فلسفه، دین، تاریخ،گاه‌شماری، موسیقی

تولد: ۲۸ اردیبهشت ۴۲۷

درگذشت:   ۱۲ آذر ۵۱۰

محل زندگی: حیره، نیشابور

لیلا فروهر,زندگی نامه لیلا فروهر,بیوگرافی لیلا فروهر
بیوگرافی لیلا فروهر، خواننده خوش صدا (+تصاویر)

تولد: ۴ اسفند ۱۲۳۷

محل تولد: اصفهان

ملیت : ایرانی

سبک‌(ها) : موسیقی پاپ فارسیفیوژن سنتی ایرانی

ساز(ها): سه تار – تار – تیمپو – پرکاشن

سال‌های فعالیت:  بازیگری (۱۳۴۴–۱۳۵۷) – خوانندگی (۱۳۵۱–اکنون)

خیام,زندگینامه خیام,زندگی نامه خیام نیشابوری
زندگینامه خیام نیشابوری

نام اصلی: غیاث‌الدین ابوالفتح عمر بن ابراهیم خیام نیشابوری

زمینه فعالیت: ریاضیات، اخترشناسی، شعر

فلسفه، دین، تاریخ،گاه‌شماری، موسیقی

تولد: ۲۸ اردیبهشت ۴۲۷

درگذشت:   ۱۲ آذر ۵۱۰

محل زندگی: حیره، نیشابور

لیلا فروهر,زندگی نامه لیلا فروهر,بیوگرافی لیلا فروهر
بیوگرافی لیلا فروهر، خواننده خوش صدا (+تصاویر)

تولد: ۴ اسفند ۱۲۳۷

محل تولد: اصفهان

ملیت : ایرانی

سبک‌(ها) : موسیقی پاپ فارسیفیوژن سنتی ایرانی

ساز(ها): سه تار – تار – تیمپو – پرکاشن

سال‌های فعالیت:  بازیگری (۱۳۴۴–۱۳۵۷) – خوانندگی (۱۳۵۱–اکنون)

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بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

۱٫ Introduction

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse and very useful group of bacteria that, while not adhering to a strict taxonomic group, are gathered on the basis of shared properties (Oguntoyinbo & Narbad, 2012) and have the common trait of producing lactic acid (LA) as a major or sole fermentation product. For these reasons, LAB have historically been associated with the fermentation of foods, and as a result many LAB, like Lactococcus, Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pedicoccus and Streptococcus sp., are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and/or probiotics (Mayo et al., 2010). The desirable property of a probiotic strain is the ability to produce antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins that offer the potential to provide an advantage in competition and colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriocins are generally defined as peptides produced by bacteria that inhibit or kill other related and unrelated microorganisms. Bacteriocin was firstly identified by Gratia (1925) as an antimicrobial protein produced by Escherichia coli and named colicin. The interest in bacteriocins produced by GRAS microorganisms has been leading to considerable interest for nisin, being the first bacteriocin to gain widespread commercial application since 1969. As a result, the field has developed increasingly, resulting in the discovery and detailed characterization of a great number of bacteriocins from LAB in the last few decades (Collins, Cotter, Hill, & Ross, 2010). Nowadays, consumers are aware of the health concerns regarding food additives; the health benefits of “natural” and “traditional” foods, processed without any addition of chemical preservatives, are becoming more attractive. Thus, because of recent consumer demand for higher quality and natural foods, as well as of strict government requirements to guarantee food safety, food producers have faced conflicting challenges (Franz, Cho, Holzapfel, & Gálvez, 2010). Chemical additives have generally been used to combat specific microorganisms. The application of bacteriocins as biopreservatives for vegetable food matrices started approximately 25 years ago. In these years, a lot of studies have focused on the inhibition of spoilage and/or human pathogens associated with vegetable foods and beverages by bacteriocins, and their application appeared as a good alternative to chemical compounds and antibiotics. When deliberately added or produced in situ, bacteriocins have been found to play a fundamental role in the control of pathogenic and undesirable flora, as well as in the establishment of beneficial bacterial populations (Collins et al., 2010). Traditionally, new bacteriocins have been identified by screening bacterial isolates for antimicrobial activity followed by purification and identification of the bacteriocin and its genetic determinants. Such a strategy is still fundamental for detection and identification of powerful bacteriocins of various subclasses, and recent examples of this include a) a class IIa bacteriocin named avicin A that was identified from Enterococcus avium strains isolated from faecal samples of healthy human infants from both Ethiopia and Norway (Birri, Brede, Forberg, Holo, & Nes, 2010), b) a circular bacteriocin named garvicin ML produced by a Lactococcus garvieae strain isolated from mallard duck (Borrero et al., 2011), c) a class IIb bacteriocin named enterocin X isolated from an Enterococcus faecium strain from sugar apples (Hu, Malaphan, Zendo, Nakayama, & Sonomoto, 2010) and d) a glycosylated bacteriocin (glycocin F) from Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from fermented corn (Kelly, Asmundson, & Huang, 1996). In the next sections, we will present bacteriocin classification, their mode of action and structure, biotechnological applications in food and pharmaceutical industries and problems associated with resistance and purification.

۲٫ Classification According to Klaenhammer (1993), bacteriocins can be divided into four classes. The class I of lantibiotics, represented by nisin, gathers very low molecular weight (<5 kDa) thermostable peptides characterized by the presence of lanthionine and derivatives. The class II is composed of small thermostable peptides (<10 kDa) divided into three subclasses: IIa (pediocin and enterocin), IIb (lactocin G) and IIc (lactocin B). The class III is represented by high molecular weight (>30 kDa) thermolabile peptides such as the helveticin J, while in the class IV we can find large peptides complexed with carbohydrates or lipids. However, Cleveland, Montville, Nes, and Chikindas (2001) believe that these structures are artifacts of partial purification and not a new class of bacteriocins. Cotter, Hill, and Ross (2005) suggested a new classification where bacteriocins are divided into two categories: lantibiotics (class I) and not containing lanthionine lantibiotics (class II), while high molecular weight thermolabile peptides, which are formally components of the above class III, would be separately designated as “bacteriolysins”. These authors also suggested that the above class IV should be extinguished. Finally, Drider, Fimland, Hechard, Mcmullen, and Prevost (2006) divided bacteriocins into three major classes according to their genetic and biochemical characteristics (Table 1), and we will refer to such a classification in the following.

بخشی از مقاله انگلیسی:

Introduction

Azolla is a floating aquatic fern that grows in tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. As Azolla has symbiotic N-fixing cyanobacteria (Anabaena azollae) within its leaf cavities, it has been cultivated for many centuries in rice paddies in southern China and northern Vietnam as ‘‘green manure’’ to improve rice N availability (Watanabe & Liu, 1992; Wagner, 1997). Even though chemical N fertilizers have been substituted for Azolla as an N source, Azolla is still cultivated by organic farmers, especially in rice- fish-Azolla or rice-duck-Azolla multiple eco-production systems in China and Japan (Watanabe, 2006). In addition to providing N, Azolla is known to modify the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil and the soil–water interface in rice fields and for mobilizing fixed phosphates, retarding the NH3 volatilization that accompanies the application of chemical N fertilizer, and suppressing aquatic weeds in flooded rice fields (Mandal et al., 1999; Biswas et al., 2005). Depending on population growth and energy use scenarios, atmospheric CO2 concentration (CO2) is expected to rise from its current level of 380 ppm to between 485 and 1000 ppm by 2100 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007). Increases of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) are predicted to cause an average global warming of 1.1–۶٫۴C by 2100 (IPCC, 2007). The stimulative effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on plant growth and development has been predicted to increase vegetative productivity, with large variations between species (Kimball et al., 2002; Ainsworth & Long, 2005). The variations in growth and photosynthetic enhancements under elevated [CO2] may be associated with the differential responses of species to other limiting factors, such as temperature, nutrients, light, and water stress (Kimball et al., 2002). As nitrogen (N) already limits productivity in most ecosystems and because tissue N content is a major determinant of photosynthesis, the CO2 fertilization effect often decreases with increasing exposure to elevated [CO2] as a result of downregulation of photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2] (Luo et al., 2004; Reich et al., 2006). In contrast, N-fixing plant species often show a larger growth response to elevated [CO2] than nonfixing species if other nutrients are not deficient (Lee et al., 2003). After N, phosphorus (P) is the other most frequently limiting nutrient for terrestrial and aquatic plant growth (Kobayashi et al., 2008), especially for N-fixing plants (Singh & Singh, 1988; Vitousek et al., 2002; Cˇ erna´ et al., 2009). Our objective was to understand how the floating aquatic fern Azolla responds to elevated [CO2] in combination with P addition and higher temperatures; and how these changes in climate parameters and P levels affected the N-fixation activity of Azolla filiculoides. Since A. azollae symbiotically fixes atmospheric N and supplies fixed N to Azolla, we hypothesize that Azolla growth would be increased by elevated [CO2], and the stimulatory effect of elevated [CO2] would be enhanced by P addition and increased temperature. We tested this hypothesis by examining growth of the biomass, C assimilation, and N accumulation by two experiments using controlled-environment chambers in the summers of 2007 and 2008.

Materials and methods

Experimental design and controlled-environment chambers

We conducted two separate pot experiments during the summer seasons in 2007 and 2008 at the National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan (36010 N, 140070 E). We used four controlledenvironment chambers (Climatron; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) to maintain the two [CO2] and two temperature treatments. Each chamber was 4 m 9 2 m 9 2 m (L 9 W 9 H) and could hold 72 pots. The pots were used to grow rice (Oryza sativa L.), Azolla filiculoides, and some aquatic weeds, included Monochoria vaginalis and Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) during 2007 and 2008 summer season. We have used these chambers since 1996 to carry out elevated [CO2] experiments with rice, and the chambers have performed well in controlling atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature (Cheng et al., 2001, 2006; Sakai et al., 2001, 2006). During the 2007 season, we used only two chambers to study how elevated [CO2] and P nutrient levels affected the growth of A. filiculoides. During the 2008 season, all four chambers were used to study interaction effects of elevated [CO2] and high temperature on growth of A. filiculoides. Details of the controlled-environment chamber systems have been described by Sakai et al. (2001). Azolla filiculoides inocula (IRRI code FI 1001) were provided by Dr. Y. Kishida of Okayama University, Japan.

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