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۱٫ Introduction

The rapid technological changes and advancement in the electronics industry have led to the rapid rise of new and advanced products, which stimulates a constant consumption turnover and the disposal of old equipment, and this has tremendously increased the waste stream of obsolete electronic equipment globally [1]. According to the United Nations investigations, around 20 to 50 million tons of e-waste are generated on a global scale, an amount rising three times faster than the entire municipal solid waste stream thereby becoming one of the fastest rising waste streams around the world, and global generation is projected to rise by 16–۲۸% annually [2,3]. Most developing countries, and especially Nigeria, face a rapidly increasing quantity of e-waste, both from domestic generation and import of obsolete or used electrical and electronic equipment (UEEE). It was reported that approximately 1.1 M tons of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) become obsolete each year in Nigeria of which 75% is stored in homes, government institutions, industries and private offices, due to the uncertainty of how to handle or dispose of such items [4]. Most developing countries lack a functional structure for the sorting, storage, collection, and disposal of waste or the proper implementation of hazardous waste-related legislation [5]. In Nigeria, there is no formal collection system and practically no capacity for material recovery processes for e-waste. Thus, the processes of managing the huge e-waste stream is not clearly spelled out and practiced, as a result of which these items are recycled using crude methods and unwanted components become discarded in local dumps or surface water bodies [6,7]. Major factors influencing this trend are the low level of public awareness on e-waste toxicity and lack of legislation aimed at providing a collection or recovery system in the country. The rudimentary recycling of e-waste has caused considerable harm to the health of scavengers, workers with no personal protective equipment, and the surrounding environment. An adequate management system for formal e-waste recycling can drive the development of local economies and the reduction of poverty. Today, as production, recovery, recycling and reuse of electronic products becomes an issue of concern among environmentalists and concerned stakeholders, it is becoming more imperative for governments to enact e-waste specific legislation and develop integrated e-waste management frameworks to increase the rate of collection, reuse, recycling and recovery of such wastes, to minimize disposal. More importantly, the role of consumers is key in the life-cycle of EEE, thus, a proper understanding of the consumers’ e-waste disposal behavior and factors which will influence consumers’ intentions to engage in green behavior is needed. In this light, several researchers have investigated consumers’ intentions and behaviors towards recycling using the theoretical lens of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) [8–۱۱]. In this paper, we seek to comprehend the factors that will influence consumers’ intentions to participate in a formal e-waste collection system. Thus, we utilize the TPB to develop a theoretical framework to examine how influencing factors lead to formal collection participation intentions. In addition, we extend the framework to examine the moderation effect of infrastructure and economic incentives on the relationship between the influencing factors and intention. The steps taken to conduct this study include a review of existing literature on the e-waste situation in Nigeria presented in Section 2. Section 3 presents the theoretical framework of this study. In Section 4, the methodology is elucidated, which includes the questionnaire development process, data collection methods and sampling distribution. Section 5 presents the data analysis and results. Section 6 presents the discussion of results and its implications, and Section 7 presents the conclusions.

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